Morinda citrifolia: fatos e riscos sobre o uso do noni

Andreia Freire Barbosa, Isabelly Cristina de Matos Costa, Silvana Zucolotto Langassner, Raquel Brandt Giordani

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/2446-4775.20170027

Resumo


Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), popularmente conhecida como noni, é amplamente utilizada, na Polinésia e no Havaí, para tratamento de diversas patologias, como: dislipidemia, diabetes, câncer, hipertensão, cicatrização, dentre outras.  Atualmente, observa-se também o uso exacerbado no Brasil, especialmente na região Nordeste, onde a planta se adaptou bem. Porém, ainda não há certeza da sua eficácia, e muitas pesquisas sobre a ação terapêutica do noni estão em desenvolvimento, embora os resultados sejam bastante controversos. O que torna o noni uma planta diferenciada e que requer atenção especial é seu potencial hepatotóxico. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) fundamenta a sua recomendação de não utilizar o noni, também, com base em relatos de toxicidade em humanos. Este trabalho é uma revisão da literatura, com objetivo de avaliar o potencial terapêutico desta planta de acordo com os estudos já desenvolvidos. Dessa forma, é possível realizar uma análise crítica do uso irracional desta planta e contribuir com a divulgação de possíveis riscos à saúde. 


Palavras-chave


Morinda citrifolia. Fitoterapia. Atividade farmacológica. Toxicidade

Texto completo:

PDF HTML

Referências


Ahn MY, Yoon HE, Moon SY, Kim YC, Yoon JH. Intratumoral photodynamic therapy with newly synthesized Pheophorbide a in murine oral cancer. Oncology Research. 2016; [Epub ahead of print]. ISSN: 1555-3906. [PubMed].

Álvarez L, Vázquez AIF, Rodríguez CFJM, Delgado NG, Suárez HRC, Rodríguez ZM, et al. Preclinical validation of the topical anti-inflammatory effect of five medicinal plants. Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales. 2014; 19(1): 40-50. ISSN: 1028-4796. [Link]

Anantharaj A, Jeyakumar S, Sathya MM, Sunder J. Biochemical and antioxidant effects in crossbred calves fed with Morinda citrifolia. Journal of Applied Animal Research. USA, 2015; 45: 252-255. ISSN: 0971-2119. [CrossRef]

Andrada JMLP, Castilha SL, Olvera MDF, Vidal AA. Hepatotoxicidad grave asociada al consumo de Noni (Morinda citrifolia). Revista Espanhola de Enfermidades Digestivas. Madrid, 2007; 99(3): 173-181. ISSN: 1130-0108. [Link]

Aziz MY, Omar AR, Subramani T, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Ismail NH. Damnacanthal is a potent inducer of apoptosis with anticancer activity by stimulating p53 and p21 genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Oncology Letters. 2014; 7: 1479-1484. ISSN: 1792-1082. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Banerjee S, Johnson AD, Csiszar K, Wansley DL, Mcgeady P. An Extract of Morinda citrifolia Interferes with the Serum-Induced Formation of Filamentous Structures in Candida albicans and Inhibits Germination of Aspergillus nidulans. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2006; 34(3):503–9. ISSN: 1793-6853. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Barani K, Manipal S, Prabu D, Ahmed A, Adusumilli P, Jeevika C. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extracts against Candida albicans: An in vitro study. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2014; 25(2):188-190. ISSN: 1998-3603. [CrossRef [PubMed].

Basar S, Uhlenhut K, Högger P, Schöne F. Westendorf J. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) Fruit. Phytotherapy Research. 2010; 1(24): 38-42. ISSN: 1099-1573. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Basar S. Identification of (2E, 4Z, 7Z) - Decatrienoic Acid in Noni Fruit and Its Use in Quality Screening of Commercial Noni Products. Food Analysis Methods. 2011; 4(1): 57–65. ISSN: 1936-976X. [CrossRef].

Baudelet PH, Gagez AL, Bérard JB, Juin C, Bridiau N, Kaas R, et al. Antiproliferative activity of Cyanophora paradoxa pigments in melanoma, breast and lung cancer cells. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11): 4390-4406. ISSN: 1660-3397. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Beh HK, Seow LJ, Asmawi MZ, Abdul Majid AM, Murugaiyah V, Ismail N, et al. Anti-angiogenic activity of Morinda citrifolia extracts and its chemical constituents. Natural Products Research. 2012; 26(16): 1492–1497. ISSN: 1478-6419. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Boonanantanasarn K, Janebodin K, Suppakpatana P, Arayapisit T, Rodsutthi JA, Chunhabundit P, et al. Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. Dental Materials Journal. 2014; 31(5): 157–165. ISSN: 1881-1361. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bui AKT, Bacic A, Pettolino F. Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Phytochemistry. 2006; 67(12): 1271–75. ISSN: 0031-9422. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Candida T, França JP, Chaves AL, Lopes FA, Gaiba S, Sacramento CK, et al. Evaluation of antitumoral and antimicrobial activity of Morinda citrifolia L. grown in Southeast Brazil. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira. 2014; 29 suppl 2: 10-14. ISSN: 1678-2674. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho GM, Park GM, Kim SN, Amna T, Lee S, Shin WS. Glioblastoma-specific anticancer activity of pheophorbide a from the edible red seaweed Grateloupia elliptica. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2014; 24(3): 346-353. ISSN: 1738-8872. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui BC, Yoon I, Li JZ, Lee WK, Shim YK. Synthesis and characterization of novel purpurinids as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5): 8091-8105. ISSN: 1422-0067. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Deng S, West BJ. Antidepressant effects of noni fruit and its active principals. Asian Journal Of Medical Sciences. 2011; 3(2): 79-83. ISSN: 2040-8773. [Link]

Di Maio FR, Oliveira JA. 2015. Morinda in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Disponível em: [Link]. Acesso em: 12/01/2017.

Dussossoy E, Bra P, Bony E, Boudard F, Poucheret P, Mertz C, et al. Characterization, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Costa Rican noni juice (Morinda citrifolia L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 133(1):108–115. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

European Comission 2002 - Scientific Committee on Food Recommendation. Disponível em: [Link]. Acesso em: 04/06/2013.

Faltynek CR, Schroeder J, Mauvais P, Miller D, Wang S, Murphy D, et al. Damnacanthal is a highly potent, selective inhibitor of p56lck tyrosine kinase activity. Biochemistry. 1995; 34(38):12404–12410. ISSN: 0006-2960. [CrossRef]

Farine JP, Legal L, Moreteau B, Le Quéré J-L. Volatile components of ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia and their effects in drosophila. Phytochemistry. 1996; 41(2):433-38. ISSN: 0031-9422. [CrossRef]

Ferradas MC, Abanto ASA, Reyes SGR. Efecto Analgésico Postexodoncia Simple Del Extracto de Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Ensayo Clinico Aleatorizado de Grupos em Paralelo. International Journal of Odontostomatology. 2014; 8(3):433-438. ISSN: 0718-381X. [CrossRef]

Fletcher HM, Dawkins J, Rattray C, Wharfe G, Reid M, Gordon-Strachan G. Morinda citrifolia noni as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology International. 2013; 2013(2013):1-16. ISSN: 2377-4304. [CrossRef]

García-Villas JA, Quesada AR, Medina MA. Damnacanthal, a noni anthraquinone, inhibits c-Met and is a potent antitumor compound against Hep G2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Scientific Report. 2015; 5:8021-8026. ISSN: 2045-2322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vilas JA, Quesada AR, Medina MA. The noni anthraquinone damnacanthal is a multi-kinase inhibitor with potent anti-angiogenic effects. Cancer Letters. 2017; 385:1-11. ISSN: 0304-3835. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilani AH, Mandukhail SU, Iqbal J, Yasinzai M, Aziz N, Khan A, et al. Antispasmodic and vasodilator activities of Morinda citrifolia root extract are mediated through blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. BMC, Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010; 2:1-10. ISSN: 1472-6882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta RK, Bajpai D, Singh N. Influence of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Expression of DNA Repair Genes in Cervical Cancer Cells. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015; 16(8):3457-3461. ISSN: 2476-762X. [PubMed]

Harada S, Fujita-Hamabe W, Kamiya K, Mizushina Y, Satake T, Tokuyama S. Morinda citrifolia fruit juice prevents ischemic neuronal damage through suppression of the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance. Journal of Natural Medicine. 2010; 64(4): p.468–73. ISSN: 1861-0293. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada S, Hamabe W, Kamiya K, Satake T, Yamamoto J, Tokuyama S. Preventive Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Juice on Neuronal Damage Induced by Focal Ischemia. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2009; 32(3):405-409. ISSN: 0918-6158. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang H, Liu CT, Chou MC, Ko CH, Wang CK. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2015; 18(6): 663-376. ISSN: 1557-7600. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda R, Wadaa M, Nishigakib T, Nakashimaa K. Quantification of coumarin derivatives in Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and their contribution of quenching effect on reactive oxygen species. Food Chemistry. 2009; 113(6):1169–72. ISSN: 0308-8146. [CrossRef]

Kamiya K, Hamabe W, Harada S, Murakami R, Tokuyama S, Satake T. Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia roots exhibit hypoglycemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biologycal and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2008; 31(5):935-38. ISSN: 0918-6158. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamiya K, Hamabea W, Tokuyamaa S, Hiranoc K, Satakea T, Kumamoto-Yonezawad Y, et al. Inhibitory effect of anthraquinones isolated from the Noni (Morinda citrifolia) root on animal A-, B- and Y-families of DNA polymerases and human cancer cell proliferation. Food Chemistry. 2010; 118(3):725–730. ISSN: 0308-8146. [CrossRef]

Kang SY, Sung SH, Park JH, Kim YC. Hepatoprotective activity of scopoletin, a constituent of Solanum lyratum. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 1998; 21(6):718–722. ISSN: 1976-3786. [PubMed]

Kim HK, Kwon M, Kim J, Kim C, Lee Y, Shin H, et al. Identification of novel fatty acid glucosides from the tropical fruit Morinda citrifolia L. Phytochemistry Letters. 2010; 3(4):238–41. ISSN: 1874-3900. [CrossRef]

Kim SA, Lee MR, Yoon JH, Ahn SG. HOXC6 regulates the antitumor effects of pheophorbide a-based photodynamic therapy in multidrug-resistant oral cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology. 2016; 49(6):2421-2430. ISSN: 1791-2423. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovendan K, Shanthakumarb SP, Praseejac C, Kumara PM, Murugana K, Vincentd S. Mosquitocidal properties of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract and Metarhizium anisopliae against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2014; 4, Supplemento 1, S173–S180, ISSN: 2222-1808. [CrossRef]

Krishnaiah D, Bono A, Sarbatly R, Anisuzzaman SM. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of an isolated Morinda citrifolia L. methanolic extract from Poly-ethersulphone (PES) membrane separator. Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences. 2013; 27(1):1-5. ISSN: 1018-3639. [CrossRef]

Kumarasamy B, Manipal S, Duraisamy P, Ahmed A, Mohanaganesh S, Jeevika C. Role of Aqueous Extract of Morinda Citrifolia (Indian Noni) Ripe Fruits In Inhibiting Dental Caries-Causing Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus mitis, Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran), Iran. 2014; 11(6):703-710. ISSN: 2008-2185. [PubMed]

Lim S, Goh YM, Noordin MM, Rahman HS, Othman HH, Abu Bakar NA, et al. Morinda citrifolia edible leaf extract enhanced immune response against lung cancer. Food&Function. 2016; 7(2):741-51. ISSN: 2042-650X. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin YL, Chang YY, Yang DJ, Tzang BS, Chen YC. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters. Food Chemistry. 2013; 140(1-2): 31–38. ISSN: 0308-8146. [CrossRef]

Liu XL, Zhang L, Fu XL, Chen K, Qian BC. Effect of scopoletin on PC3 cell proliferation and apoptosis. Acta Pharmacologica. 2001; 22(10):929–933. ISSN: 0253-0756. [PubMed]

Long XY, Jiang M, Hsieh K, Liu J. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Morinda citrifolia. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2009; 7(2): 119−22. [CrossRef] [ResearchGate]

Lishuang LV. Chemical components of the roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and their cytotoxic effects. Fitoterapia. 2011; 82(4): 704-708. ISSN: 0367-326X. [CrossRef]

Mahattanadul S, Ridtitid W, Nima S, Phdoongsombut N, Ratanasuwon P, Kasiwong S. Effects of Morinda citrifolia aqueous fruit extract and its biomarker scopoletin on reflux esophagitis and gastric ulcer in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 134:243–250. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef]

Mandukhail SR, Aziz N, Gilani A. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit, leaves and root extracts. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2010; 9:1-6. ISSN: 1476-511X. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marques NFQ, Marques AP, Iwano AL, Golin M, De-Carvalho RR, Paumgartten FJ, et al. Delayed ossification in Wistar rats induced by Morinda citrifolia L. exposure during pregnancy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010; 128(1):85-91. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef]

Masuda M. Inhibitory effects of constituents of Morinda citrifolia seeds on elastase and tyrosinase. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2009; 63(3):267-73. ISSN: 1861-0293. [CrossRef]

Masuda M, Murata K, Fukuhama A, Naruto S, Fujita T, Uwaya A, et al. Inhibitory Effects of Morinda citrifolia Extract and Its Constituents on Melanogenesis in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells. Biologic and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2012; 35(1):78-83. ISSN: 1347-5215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mompié AC, Sanchez IMP, Cunhanune CLC, Lorente CP, Aguilai FC. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts from leaves and seeds of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni). Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales. 2014; 19(1):374-382. [Link]

Muralidharan P, Srikanth J. Anti Epileptic Activity of Morinda Citrifolia Linn Fruit Extract. E-Journal of Chemistry. 2010a; 7(2):612-16. ISSN: 2090-9810. [CrossRef]

Muralidharan P, Kumar VR, Balamurugan G. Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruits on b-Amyloid (25–35) Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice: An Experimental and Biochemical Study. Phytotherapy Research. 2010b; 24(2):252-258. ISSN: 1099-1573. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray PE, Farber RM, Namerow KN, Kuttler S, Garcia-Godoy F. Evaluation of Morinda citrifolia as an Endodontic Irrigant. Journal of Endodontics. 2008; 34(1):66-70. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayak S, Mengi S. Preliminary Physicochemical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extraction. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 2(4): 150-154. ISSN: 0975-1491. [Link]

Nima S, Kasiwong S, Ridtitid W, Thaenmanee N, Mahattanadul S. Gastrokinetic activity of Morinda citrifolia aqueous fruit extract and its possible mechanism of action in human and rat models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012; 142(2):354–61. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef]

Nitteranon V, Zhanga G, Darienb BJ, Parkina K. Isolation and synergism of in vitro anti-inflammatory and quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Food Research International. 2011; 44(7):2271–77. ISSN: 0963-9969. [CrossRef]

Nualsanit T, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanapan W, Lee SH, Lawson D, Baek SJ. Damnacanthal, a noni component, exhibits antitumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2012; 23(8):915–923. ISSN: 0955-2863. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okusada, K, Nakamoto K, Nishida M, Fujita-Hamabe W, Kamiya K, Mizushina Y, et al. The Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Action of the CHCl3-Soluble Phase and Its Main Active Component, Damnacanthal, Isolated from the Root of Morinda citrifolia. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2011; 34(1):103-7. ISSN: 1347-5215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olaniyan MF, Babatunde EM. Preventive (myoglobin, transferrin) and scavenging (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) antioxidative properties of raw liquid extract of Morinda lucida leaf in the traditional treatment of Plasmodium infection. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine. 2016; 7(1):47–53. ISSN: 2229-7707 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliveira E, Romero MA, Silva MS, Silva BA, Medeiros IA. Intracellular calcium mobilization as a target for the spasmolytic action of scopoletin. Planta Médica. 2001; 67(7): 605–608.

ISSN: 0032-0943. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pachauri SD, Tota S, Khandelwal K, Verma PR, Nath C, Hanif K, et al. Protective effect of fruits of Morinda citrifolia L. on scopolamine induced memory impairment in mice: A behavioral, biochemical and cerebral blood flow study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012; 139(1):34-41. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef]

Pak-Dek MS, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A, Soh CS. Inhibitory Effect of Morinda Citrifolia L. on Lipoprotein Lipase Activity. Journal of the Food Science. 2008; 73(8): C595-8. ISSN: 1750-3841. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palioto GF, Silva CFG, Mendes MP, Almeida VV, Rocha CLMSC, Tonin LTD. Composição centesimal, compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante de frutos de Morinda citrifolia Linn (noni) cultivados no Paraná. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais. 2015; 17(1):59-66. ISSN: 1983-084X. [CrossRef]

Palu AK, Kim AH, West BJ, Deng S, Jensen J, White L. The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: Its molecular mechanisms of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008; 115(3):502-506. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandy V, Narasingam M, Kunasegaran T, Murugan DD, Mohamed Z. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study, The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: Article ID 909586. ISSN: 1537-744X. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pawlus AD, Kinghorn DA. Review of the ethnobotany, chemistry, biological activity and safety of the botanical dietary supplement Morinda citrifolia (noni). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2007; 59:1587-1609. ISSN: 2042-7158. [CrossRef]

Potterat O, Hamburger M. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit- Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Safety. Planta Médica. 2007; 73(3):1991-99. ISSN: 0032-0943. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao USM, Subramanian SM. Biochemical evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2009; 18(6):433–46. ISSN: 1554-8120. [CrossRef]

Ratnoglik SL, Aoki C, Sudarmono P, Komoto M, Deng L, Shoji I, et al. Antiviral activity of extracts from Morinda citrifolia leaves and chlorophyll catabolites, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, against hepatitis C virus. Microbiology and Immunology. 2014; 58(3):188-194. ISSN: 1348-0421. [CrossRef]

Ruhomally ZJ, Somanah T, Bahorun B, Neergheen-Bhujunet VS. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2015; 6(3):299–304. ISSN: 2225-4110. [CrossRef]

Samoylenko V, Zhao J, Dunbar DC, Khan IA, Rushing JW, Muhammad I. New Constituents from Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Fruit Juice. Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry. 2006; 54(17):6398−6402. ISSN: 1520-5118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraphanchotiwitthaya A, Sripalakit P. Anti-inflammatory effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Science Asia. 2015; 41(1):5–11. [CrossRef] [Link]

Serafini MR, Santos RC, Guimarães AG, Santos JP, Santos AD, Alves IA. et al. Morinda citrifolia Linn. leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011; 14(10): 1159–66. ISSN: 1557-7600. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaghayegh G, Alabsi AM, Ali-Saeed R, Ali AM, Vincent-Chong VK, Zain RB. Cell cycle arrest and mechanism of apoptosis induction in H400 oral cancer cells in response to Damnacanthal and Nordamnacanthal isolated from Morinda citrifolia. Cytotechnology. 2016; 68(5):1999-2013. ISSN: 1573-0778. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw CY, Chen CH, Hsu CC, Chen CC, Tsai YC. Antioxidant properties of scopoletin isolated from Sinomonium acutum. Phytotherapy Research. 2003; 17(7):823–825. ISSN: 1099-1573. [CrossRef]

Sathishkumar G, Cobinath C, Karpagam K, Hemamalini V, Premkumar K, Sivaramakrishnan S. Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoscale particles using Morinda citrifolia L. and its inhibitory activity against human pathogens. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2012; 95:235-240. ISSN: 0927-7765. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shenoy JP, Preethi GP, Ahsan S, Gokul P, Avdhoot K, Kotian MS. An Evaluation of diuretic activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice in normal rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 3(2):119-21. ISSN: 0975-1491. [Link].

Shirwaikar A, Kamariya Y, Patel B, Nanda S, Parmar V, Khan S. Methanol extract of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn., Restores Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2011; 7(4):446-54. ISSN: 1812-5700. [CrossRef]

Siddiqui BS, Sattar FA, Begum S, Gulzar T, Ahmadf. Chemical Constituents from the stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Archive of Pharmacy Research. 2007; 30(7):793-798. ISSN: 1976-3786. [CrossRef]

Shoeb A. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit juice on high fat diet induced dyslipidemia in rats. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2016; 10(4):FF06-10. ISSN: 0973-709X [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song B, Fengjuan W, Wang W. Effect of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. how on microwave-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis impairment in male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015(2015), Article ID 360730. [CrossRef]

Souza JA, Aquino ARL, Freire FCO, Neto PAFS. Produção de Mudas de Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), Comunicado técnico EMPRAPA (folhetos). 2010; ISSN: 1679-6535. [Link]

Stadlbauer V, Fickert P, Lackner C, Schmerlaib J, Krisper P, Trauner M, et al. Hepatotoxicity of noni juice: Report of two cases. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005; 11(30):4758-60. ISSN: 2219-2840. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukamporn P, Rojanapanthu P, Silva G, Zhang X, Gritsanapan W, Baek SJ. Damnacanthal and its nanoformulation exhibit anti-cancer activity via cyclin D1 down-regulation. Life Sciences. 2016; 152:60-66. ISSN: 0024-3205. [CrossRef]

Tabana YM, Hassana LEA, Ahamedb MBK, Dahhama S, Iqbalb MA, Saeedc MAA, et.al. Scopoletin, an active principle of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) inhibits human tumor vascularization in xenograft models and modulates ERK1, VEGF-A, and FGF-2 in computer model. Microvascular Research. 2016; 107:17-33. ISSN: 0026-2862. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taskin EI, Akgün-Dar K, Kapucu A, Osanç E, Doğruman H, Eraltan H, et al. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Morinda citrifolia L. and doxorubicin on the Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb-c mice. Cell Biochemical Function, 2009; 27:542–46. ISSN: 1099-0844. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Till U, Gibot L, Mingotaud AF, Ehrhart J, Wasungu L, Mingotaud C, et al. Drug Release by Direct Jump from Poly(ethylene-glycol-b-ε-caprolactone) Nano-Vector to Cell Membrane. Molecules, 2016; 21(12), pii: E1643. ISSN 1420-3049. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang MY, Su CX, Chen DL. Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001; 952(1): 161-168. ISSN: 1749-6632. [CrossRef] [ResearchGate]

West BJ. Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2006; 57(7-8): 556-558. ISSN: 1465-3478. [CrossRef]

West BJ, Palmer SK, Deng S, Palu AK. Antimicrobial Activity of an Iridoid Rich Extract from Morinda citrifolia Fruit. Current Research Journal of Biological Science. 2012; 4(1):52-54. ISSN: 2333-9721. [Link].

West BJ, Su CX, Jensen CJ. Hepatotoxicity and sub chronic toxicity tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. J.Stage. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 2009a; 34(5):581-85. ISSN: 1880-3989. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

West BJ, White LD, Jensen CJ, Palu AK. A Double-blind clinical safety study of noni fruit juice. Pacific Health Dialog. 2009b; 15(2):21-32. ISSN: 1015-7867. [PubMed]

West BJ. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema. Springer. The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer. 2009; 63:351–54. ISSN: 1861-0293. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

West BJ, Deng S, Jensen, CJ. Nutrient and phytochemical analyses of processed noni puree. Elsevier. Food Research International. 2011; 44:2295–2301. ISSN: 0963-9969. [CrossRef]

West BJ, Su CX, Jensen CJ. Prenatal toxicity test of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. J.Stage. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 2008; 33(5):647-49. ISSN: 1880-3989. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

West BJ, Ani H, Palu AK, Tolson CB, Jensen CJ. Safety tests and antinutrient analysis of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaf. Wiley. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007; 87:2583-88. ISSN: 1097-0010. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

West BJ, Jarakae JAK, Palu SD. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) Seed Extract. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011; 3(4):303-07. ISSN: 2042-4868. [Link].

Westendorf J, Effenberger K, Iznaguen H, Basar S. Toxicological and Analytical Investigations of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Fruit Juice. ACS. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry. 2007; 55(2):529-37. ISSN: 1520-5118. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Wu Z, Chen DL, Lin FH, Lin L, Shuai O, Wang JY, et al. Effect of baijiu isolated from Morinda officinalis F.C. on sexual function in male mice and its antioxidant protection of human sperm. Elsevier. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015; 164:283-92. ISSN: 0378-8741. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Zhang W, Wang W, Zhang JJ, Wang ZR, Wang Y, Hao WJ, et al. Antibacterial Constituents of Hainan Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Leaves. Wiley. Journal of Food Science. 2016; v.81. ISSN: 1750-3841. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Zin ZMA, Abdul H, Osmanb A, Saarib N. Antioxidative activities of chromatographic fractions obtained from root, fruit and leaf of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.). Elsevier. Food Chemistry. 2006; 94:169-78. ISSN: 0308-8146. [CrossRef].


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.