Nearly all cultures use medicinal plants as a vital dietary resource, the ingredients collected from their surroundings being used for food and medicine. This study will provide the basis for further ethnopharmacological research by documenting the use of medicinal plants traditionally employed by the communities along the Aruanã River to treat malaria and related symptoms. While this is the first ethnobotanical study in this region, the socio-economic profile will also be evaluated as part of this study. We also aimed to review literature on traditional use of the cited species for comparison. Ethnobotanical data was collected using semi-structured interviews with 23 participants, which cited 29 species used to prevent and/or cure malaria and related symptoms. The interviewees ranged in age from 14 to 83, with 73.91% women, and 47.83% illiterate. Medicinal plants gathered from the wild and cultivated in gardens have been traditionally used to treat malaria and related symptoms among riverine communities. Documenting this local knowledge to compare with reviewed literature regarding efficacy and toxicity would be an essential part in the search for a new antimalarial agent.